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    Mujeres víctimas de violencia sexual, su derecho a la reparación en el proceso de transición de la Ley de Justicia y Paz en la Inspección El Placer, departamento de Putumayo, 2010-2015 

    Calderón Robledo, Lady Andrea; andreacal012@hotmail.com(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-08)

    Purpose:This article shows how female victims of sexual violence in the context of the armed conflict are still waiting to be repaired, despite the provisions in the Colombian regulations, which, since the Justice and Peace Act, have promoted a reparation scheme that remains fragile, weakening the res-ponse of the Colombian State regarding the protection of human rights. Methods:For this purpose, the research was conducted at the El Placer Police Station, jurisdiction of the municipality of Valle del Guamuez, in the department of Putumayo, through a mixed—quali-tative-quantitative—method along with a type of case study, using a focused sample that allowed surveying victims and officials at the Police Station. Results: It was established that the victims in the criminal process would have three guarantees: the right to the truth, the right to justice, and the right to no impunity. Conclusions: It was concluded that, at the El Placer Police Station, women who have been victims of sexual violence have not been repaired, that the transition between the Justice and Peace Act and transitional justice has not produced results in the matter, and that the invisibility of victims continues.

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    Biopolítica y democracia como estilo de vida: una mirada desde la psicología social 

    Díaz Gómez, Álvaro; Carmona, Olga Lucía; Salamanca, Liliana Andrea; adiaz@utp.edu.co(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-04)

    Purpose: To reflect on two ways of adopting democracy, as a form of government and as a way of life, in order to establish its relationship with biopolitics from social psychology—as a psychology that is political—based on a particular case that occurred in Colombia known as “false positives.” Theme: The possibility of thinking about a life that is politically controlled from the perspective of social psychology, for which it is assumed from the discourse of biopolitics. Elaboration: A contextualization is provided for recognizing that social psychology is political given the use of the knowledge it produces, so that problems that emerge in the construction of democracy cannot be alien to it and, thus, it is plausible to approach its expression as a lifestyle in relation to what it is as a form of government. From this, biopolitical devices for life control are established, and the extrajudicial executions implemented in Colombia, known as “false positives,” are an example of this. Conclusions: It is still visible how psychology, particularly social psychology, is political because of the way knowledge is used. Therefore, if thought in terms of popular majorities, knowledge may contribute to the construction of a democratic society, in which it is not only a structural governmental process but also deployed as a cultural ethos in daily life. Perhaps this is how processes of resistance to biopolitics are generated and a psychopolitics emerges.

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    Estereotipos de género, maternidad y empleo: un análisis psicosociológico 

    Garrido Luque, Alicia; Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis; Rosas Torres, Ana Raquel; algarrid@cps.ucm.es(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-04)

    Introduction: In the last decades there has been a substantial change in the position of women in the labor market, although it cannot yet be said that there is an equal share of jobs between men and women. On the one hand, there are still clear indications of employment discrimination against women and, on the other hand, the participation of men in domestic work has not grown at the same rate as that of women in paid work. Objective: To reflect on the ideological bases supporting this inequality by analyzing the weight that traditional gender stereotypes, especially those built around motherhood, have on the career of young women. Method: Data come from a qualitative study in which a sample of young people with different positions within the labor market was interviewed. Results: Generally, the discourses on maternity and upbringing are characterized by a marked biological and psychological essentialism that attributes a greater natural capacity for the care of children to women. Conclusions: Gender stereotypes that are built around motherhood are one of the main ideological factors that maintain discrimination against women in the labor market.

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    Estudio de caso diagnosticado como desorden obsesivo compulsivo desde el análisis contingencial 

    Rodríguez Campuzano, María Lourdes; carmayu5@yahoo.com(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-04)

    Introduction: This paper presents a case study of a behavior diagnosed as obsessive-compulsive disorder. Method: The case is analyzed and treated by a method arising from the inter-behavioral approach called “contingency analysis.” The application of the method is illustrated by the analysis of two basic dimensions for this purpose: micro-contingency dimension and macro-contingency dimension. Some important aspects of the genesis of this behavior, as well as the analysis of the selected solutions, are described. The intervention objectives and the techniques used are also explained. Results: Because of the intervention, changes were obtained in the behavior of the user of the service (who was the mother of the person diagnosed with the disorder and her child so diagnosed). Conclusions: The article concludes by detailing the advantages of approaching a case study with the contingency analysis method.

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    Perfeccionismo y autoestima en estudiantes universitarios argentinos 

    Helguera, Gisela Paola; Oros, Laura Beatriz; lauraorosb@gmail.com(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-04)

    Objective: To explore the extent to which perfectionism and self-esteem are related to Argentine university students. Method: Three hundred and forty-one subjects answered the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: The results showed a significant, robust, negative relationship between self-esteem and perfectionist discrepancy (r = -0,53; p greater than 0,001), and a weak but significant relationship between selfe-steem and high standards (r = 0,19; p greater than 0,001). Also, significant differences were observed (f multiplied by (2,145) = 11,89; p greater than 0,001, Greek letter Eta 2p = 0.14) in the self-esteem of adaptive perfectionists, compared to that of maladaptive perfectionists and non-perfectionists; adaptive perfectionists scored higher than the other two groups. Conclusions: It was established that, in line with the findings of previous studies, the dimensions of perfectionism are differentially related to self-esteem so that discrepancy is the characteristic that induces the greatest amount of variance explained. The practical importance of the results obtained justifies the incorporation of psychoeducational strategies to reduce dysfunctional perfectionism and foster adaptive perfectionism in any program whose aim is to promote self-esteem in Argentine university students.

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    Programa de promoción de la parentalidad positiva en la escuela: un estudio preliminar en un contexto de vulnerabilidad social 

    Vargas Rubilar, Jael; Richaud, María Cristina; Oros, Laura Beatriz; psicojael@gmail.com(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-04)

    ntroduction: Positive parenting requires the balanced combination of various essential factors, such as attachment, affection, communication, discipline and autonomy granted to children. Objective: This study explored the impact of a parental strengthening program based on the assessment of participating mothers and their children. Method: The program was implemented in groups through expository-participative meetings at a school in a socially vulnerable context. After its application, semi-structured interviews with the mothers were conducted; in addition, the attachment and parental style perceived by their respective children before and after the program were evaluated and compared with a control group. Results: We found that the workshops, as reported by the participants, provided novel information that contributed to their personal growth and parental sensitivity; produced a change in beliefs regarding parenting and an improvement in the expression of affection, verbal communication and discipline; was an important source of social support; and activated their interest in the school situation of their children, which improved—in some cases—communication between mothers and the school. Moreover, the children’s perception of attachment and parenting style was better after the intervention with the mothers and better than that observed in the control group. Conclusions: It is concluded that the intervention program had a favorable impact on different maternal aspects that encourage the exercise of positive parenthood.

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    Uso de la realidad aumentada en la enseñanza-aprendizaje de ciencias naturales 

    Muñoz Arracera, Lilia Esther; Montenegro Santos, Reyes; lilia.munoz@utp.ac.pa(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-01-01)

    Introduction: The article derives from the research “Use of augmented reality in the teaching-learning of natural science” conducted in 2016 and the first half of 2017 at the School of Computer Systems Engineering, Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá. Problem: Currently, Panama does not offer technological solutions in the educational field that support the process of teaching-learning about natural areas and their conservation. Aim: To contribute to improving the process of teaching-learning natural science and the conservation of the environment through mobile devices and augmented reality. Methods: Research-action was used, for which the work to be done was planned, the application was developed, students using the application were then observed, and the results were presented according to the observations and a rubric applied to students. Results: An application with augmented reality was developed to support the process of teaching-learning natural science and, in this case, the teaching and conservation of natural areas. Conclusion: We have managed to create animations that allow students to take in the information of natural areas and thus strengthen their learning through interactive contents. Originality: So far, the implementation of this type of applications in rural schools had not been addressed from this perspective. The project has enabled the academic community to have a valuable application to teach about the conservation of natural areas. Limitations: The project only covers the learning and conservation of natural areas.

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    Un análisis histórico de los mecanismos no penales centroamericanos para Colombia 

    Eugene Ulrich, William; william.ulricha@campusucc.edu.co(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaPopayánCiencia Inclusiva, 2017-08)

    Purpose: This article proposes a historical-comparative approach to the history, development and forms of solutions implemented by Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua in the internal conflicts they experienced in the eighties and nineties, and a comparison is made with the end of the conflict between Colombia and FARC. Description: The irregular nature of Central American conflicts and their immense similarity with the conflict in Colombia—which, like them, faced an organized guerrilla—allow for an analysis to observe historical events critically and bring them to a present in which experiences are repeated almost inevitably. Point of view: Central American conflicts offer an excellent opportunity for analysis for the current work since their striking resemblance to the Colombian conflict provides a considerable amount of material that must be taken into consideration and many proposals that cannot be ignored. Conclusions: It is necessary to present various cases and experiences to extract the necessary learning and not repeat the mistakes made in the past.

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    Perspectivas filosóficas de los valores superiores: un intento de redefinición como identidad y patrimonio de los pueblos 

    Galbán Rodríguez, Liuba; Rodríguez Matos, Neris; lgalban@uo.edu.cu; neris@uo.edu.cu(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2017-08)

    Purpose: To offer a redefinition of constitutional values by considering them as part of the identity and intangible heritage of peoples as a result of specific historical, political, economic and socio-cultural conditions. Description: A brief retrospective of the main conceptions of values in the legal philosophical thought is elaborated. Questions such as whether the recognition of values by constitutions arises from historical chance, why they are called “higher” or “superior” in the legal system, whether or not they are part of positive law, what their relationship to rights is, and whether their constitutional recognition is sufficient to enforce them in society are answered. Point of view: The values recognized in constitutions express ideologies, ideals and aspirations; they are reflections of social, political, legal philosophical thoughts and radiate to all the systems derived from the Constitution Conclusions: Superior values are part of the identity and intangible heritage of peoples, especially when they are recognized because of democratic constituent processes, have the hierarchical supremacy of the source they come from, are part of positive law, and can be directly invokable, interpretable and applicable.

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    Los principios y su evolución en el derecho mercantil 

    Constanza Pérez, Yina; yinacp@yahoo.es(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2017-08)

    Purpose: This essay aims to show how commercial law, as a behavior of man in society, is not alien to legal principles. Description: The fact that this legal branch is relatively new regarding its codification shows that its genesis is as old as man. Therefore, this work demonstrates how the general principles of law have permeated this specialty. Point of view: The research deals with the following legal question: How have the general principles of law permeated commercial law and how has it evolved? It is answered using the method proposed by Tomás Austin, and Frida Gisela Ortiz-Uribe and María del Pilar García. Hernán Valencia-Restrepo, Norberto Bobbio, Ronald Dworkin, among others give the theoretical basis. Conclusions: The commercial sphere must be affected by said trend; otherwise, it would be excluded from the context proposed by this new concept.

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    ¿Libertad e Internet? 

    Galindo, Fernando; Moura do Carmo, Valter; cfa@unizar.es; vmcamo86@gmail.com(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2017-08-18)

    Purpose: The article provides a reflection on the limits established by the use of the Internet on exercising the right to freedom. This is recognized in democratic constitutions as the preservation of the exercise of the autonomy of will in the daily life of citizens or individuals, which are part of a specific social and political organization, by respecting its exercise by other individuals or citizens. Description: The work especially intends to present some limits that are set in this regard in several practices that take place on the Internet. Point of view and conclusions: It provides arguments focused on considering to what extent an effective, positive, complete and absolute relationship between freedom and the Internet can be established, if possible.

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    Fueros constitucionales y derecho penal: resocialización de indígenas en prisión 

    Benítez Núñez, Christian; Noriega Villamizar, Angélica Patricia; Patricio Abarca, Ulises; christianbenitez@uaem.mx; apnoriegav@unal.edu.co; upatt300@gmail.com(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2017-08)

    Theme and scope: This article approaches the current state of resocialization with regard to convicted natives in state prisons, as well as the contents and meaning that should guide the purpose of punishment. Moreover, the scope of indigenous jurisdictional power is addressed, which has been widely discussed in writings of jurists and the case law on how to overcome the dichotomy of the discourse between the protection of fundamental liberal rights and the preservation and conservation of native peoples to prevent their subsequent disappearance. Characteristics: Specifying that this tension occurs due to the customs and worldview of indigenous peoples compared to Western customs. Findings: The criminal law in charge of punishing behaviors that have the characteristics of a crime has provided a whole theory about the purposes of punishment that has been somehow adopted by indigenous communities as a solution to conflicts. Conclusions: The importance of providing the concept of ethnically differentiated resocialization with contents is advised since this can lead to constructing an appropriate theory that allows imprisoned natives to have an adequate treatment plan and to deal with the structural differences this entails.

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    Fomento a la cultura del emprendimiento jurídico: papel fundamental de las universidades en el posconflicto 

    Paredes Bustamante, Martha Lucía; marta.paredesb@campusucc.edu.co(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2017-08)

    Introduction: The dynamics of globalization in the contemporary world and the outlook of the current Colombian reality—the peace dialogs, reaching an agreement to end an over-50-year conflict, and the subsequent post-conflict phase—demand that universities, their managers, professors, and graduates deploy and plan a series of programs and actions to bind higher education institutions to social and labor problems from little-explored dimensions, such as legal entrepreneurship. Methods: The project explores new possibilities to practice law and train lawyers to apply their legal knowledge in detecting opportunities to design solutions to problems in contexts of conflict with precarious rates of unemployment, health, education, and coexistence. Results and conclusions: This exploration on novel applications of legal knowledge will allow to establish whether the law professor and student can walk through little-explored fields—professional practices of an entrepreneurial behavior, in this case—, by formulating an idea that can be translated into innovative projects; comply with ethical values and constitutional principles in contexts of peace and conflict; and take on the commitment and historical behavior of a managing lawyer required by the 21st century, who is oriented to “know law and towards a new know-how with the knowledge of law.”

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    El fenómeno de la deserción escolar en un contexto local: estudio de la política municipal 

    Varón Martínez, Fernelly; fernellyvar@hotmail.com(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2017-08)

    Purpose: This report analyzes the problem of student dropout at the educational institution Siete de Agosto in Cali by studying internal and external factors and the analysis of the development of educational processes as causes of school dropout. Strategies to reduce the risk of dropout are also suggested. Description: For this, an exploratory study is conducted, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the educational community related to this educational phenomenon is used, with a special interest in the individual. Point of view: Particularly, a school dropout trend is identified with diverse variables in a specific period of time within the selected timeframe. Conclusions: The results of this research indicate that children and young people leave the institution due to intra-urban mobility or transportation, problems of coexistence, failures in the institution’s administrative function, and other socio-cultural problems.

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    Debido proceso e independencia judicial en América Latina 

    Medina Cuenca, Arnel; Salcedo Ortega, Ernesto; Huertas Díaz, Omar; arnelmedinacuenca@yahoo.es; ernesto.salcedo.o@gmail.com; ohuertasd@unal.edu.co(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2017-08)

    Introduction: Judicial independence constitutes a guarantee of due process and one of the essential assumptions for the better operation of the judicial power. Methods: The study of a guarantee that prevents the interference of the other powers in the resolution of matters submitted to the knowledge of judges and courts is addressed by examining the main international legal instruments, constitutions and national laws, as well as the analysis of cases resolved by the national case law and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. Results and conclusions: Issues such as how judges and magistrates are elected, the duration of their office, performance evaluations and external interference in their actions are approached from both doctrinal approaches and comparative law, aiming at measuring the degree of people’s confidence in their judicial system, as a fundamental part of democracy.

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    Sistema de control automático de variables climáticas para optimizar el rendimiento de cultivos bajo cubierta 

    Alarcón López, Álvaro Hernán; Arias Vargas, Geyni; Díaz Ortiz, Cristian Javier; Sotto Vergara, Juan David; alvaro.alarcon@corhuila.edu.co(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-01-01)

    Introduction: The article derives from the research “Design of a system for the control and automation of temperature, soil moisture, and relative humidity to optimize greenhouse crop yields at Corhuila” conducted at Corporación Universitaria del Huila between 2016 and 2017. Aim: To improve growth rates of greenhouse crops. Methods: The study was based on a comparison of growth and number of fruits between greenhouse and outdoor tomato crops; said items were monitored weekly by direct observation of the two groups of crops. Results: Development during the first five weeks was similar; as of the seventh week, the greenhouse crop had 38 % more branches, equal number of fruits and was 28% higher; on week 13, the differences increased to 64 % in the number of branches, 65% in the number of fruits and 55% in height. Conclusion: It was proved that the implementation of this technological solution can promote an increase in the growth and production rate reached by plants. Originality: Development of an electronic system for the agricultural sector in an intermediate region of Colombia to improve the efficiency of crops. Limitations: The lack of Internet access made it impossible to implement a web-based control system.

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    Prototipo de plataforma para vigilancia de inmuebles rurales mediante computación en la nube y supervisión con drones 

    Segura Cuervo, Maycol Alexander; Mesa Lara, Jairo Alonso; maycol.segura@uptc.edu.co(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-01-01)

    Introduction: The article derives from the research “Alarm monitoring system based on unmanned aerial vehicles” conducted at Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia in 2016. It shows the construction phases of an electronic alarm monitoring platform prototype using cloud computing, supported by surveillance drones. Aim: To improve response times in the surveillance of rural properties upon a warning signal of possible theft by quickly collecting external evidence captured in photos and videos. Methods: We identified how the monitoring service is provided in Colombia and then five modules were designed and implemented: intrusion, reception, management, monitoring and surveillance. Results: Once an intrusion variable was altered and detected by the sensors, the alarm system transmitted the warning signal through IP/GPRS communication to the signal receiver in the cloud, which translates the message and directs it to the management software responsible for sending the flight plan and geographic coordinates required for onsite drone surveillance. Conclusion: Response times on drone surveillance could be calculated with favorable results for the monitoring service, and the management software was developed. Originality: We obtained a platform with innovative elements associated with the integration of drones and cloud computing. Limitations: Colombian regulations on drones restrict unmanned flights.

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    Negación de derechos, negación de justicia: los Embera Katío 

    Rebolledo Vargas, Jairo Alfonso; revolledova@hotmail.com(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-08)

    Aim: This article explains the situation of displacement to which the Embera Katío people were forced as a result of the construction of the Urrá 1 hydroelectric power plant (Alto Sinú-Córdoba), depriving this minority group of its territorial and cultural heritage and causing its imminent disappearance as a community. Methods: The document shows how political and judicial corruption—through its questioned decisions—caused the Embera Katío community to be “expelled” from their ancestral territories and relocated in the urban area of the municipality, where they could not carry out their agricultural, educational, religious, fishing and navigation, etc. activities. Therefore, its members were subjected to a process of adaptability to a new life system until “disappearing” as an ethnic group. Results: Despite the existence of national and international legislation that protects the rights of indigenous communities and minorities, there was no effective application of the law in this case so that, when the Constitutional Court intervened, it faced accomplished facts. Conclusion: The judicial authorities’ failure to timely obey the orders of the National Constitution and international treaties led to a situation of eviction, displacement and subsequent disappearance by acculturation of the Embera Katío community from Alto Sinú.

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    El software como servicio y el Habeas Data: Una aproximación desde el Derecho Privado y Constitucional en Colombia 

    Mendoza Munar, Lainiver; laniver.mendoza@campusucc.edu.co(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaCaliCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-08)

    Theme and scope: This reflection paper aims to analyze personal data processing in Colombia by companies that offer software as a service (SaaS), especially the regulation regarding habeas data in Colombia and related principles established by case law. Characteristics: Various contractual types are analyzed from private law and the importance of regulating personal data processing in the platforms providing the SaaS service is determined, based not only on constitutional principles, but also on the use of private law regulations. Findings: The application of constitutional principles plays a significant role when regulating the contractual types of technology companies, although contracts are also crucial according to the principles laid down by the law and case law on personal data. Conclusions: We could demonstrate the importance of determining product ownership and data ownership, as well as the relevance of stipulating these aspects in the technological platforms using the SaaS model to operate in Colombia.

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    Implementación de una aplicación móvil para facilitar el autocontrol de la hipertensión en Panamá 

    Villarreal Contreras, Vladimir; Nielsen Pimentel, Mel Imanol; vladimir.villarreal@utp.ac.pa(Ediciones Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bogotá, ColombiaExternoCiencia Inclusiva, 2018-01-01)

    Introduction: The article derives from the research “Implementation of a mobile application to facilitate self-control of hypertension in Panama” conducted in 2016 and 2017 at the Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá, in the province of Chiriquí. Aim: To develop a mobile application that allows the self-control and self-management of hypertensive patient data in Panama through mobile and biometric devices. Methods: A mobile application that allows patient self-control of hypertension using his mobile device was designed. The information generated by the device was captured from a sphygmomanometer and stored locally and remotely. This information was linked to the AmIHealth platform. Results: Use and acceptance of the proposal by users was assessed through the analysis of data based on the downloads from the Google’s Firebase Suite. Conclusions: This solution provides a tool that facilitates patient self-control of hypertension and data management by health specialists, thus helping decision-making. Originality: Panama does not have a basic patient data management system like the one developed. Limitations: This study considered only applications or solutions in the Panamanian environment because most existing applications are proprietary and not manageable by health institutions in each country.

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